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ARCHIVES Home

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ARCHIVES  July 2006, Week 2

ARCHIVES July 2006, Week 2

Subject:

Re: Improving staff morale

From:

[log in to unmask]

Reply-To:

[log in to unmask]

Date:

Sat, 8 Jul 2006 12:16:00 EDT

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (171 lines)

Excellent question, Laura, and one which many managers have had to grapple.  
I'm not sure how much this will help you, but here's my perspective on how to 
keep up morale under challenging circumstances.
 
I'm lucky in that I work within a unit at the Government Accountability 
Office in which people perform disparate functions but have bonded well and the 
unit consequently has high morale.  (Check out the Office of Quality and 
Continuous Improvement at www.gao.gov/about.gao/phonebook/orgphonebook.pdf to see the 
composition of my current office.)  But I saw some of the challenges of 
keeping up staff morale in the early 1980s, when the National Archives went through 
a reduction in staff.  Promotions were few and bonuses small or nonexistent 
for some years to come.  How to keep up morale under those circumstances?
 
I think you're on the right track in recognizing that psychic benefits as 
well as monetary benefits can be motivators.  Some managers understand use them 
instinctively, others have to be taught.  And, let's face it, some never "get 
it," and may go through the motions but torpedo their own efforts because they 
are unable to absorb some key concepts.  I think a lot of this depends on how 
confident the manager is and whether he has the ability to partner with people 
of varying ranks.  Someone who is overly invested in his own sense of status 
may be unable to lead effectively during tough times. Even bringing up the 
question of workplace improvement might be dangerous for subordinates working for 
such a manager, so the first step is understanding how the top people think 
and operate.  I was lucky that I worked with managers at NARA who knew how to 
improve morale even when there was no money to be handed out as part of the 
official rewards system.
 
It is useful for managers to understand what makes for a high performing 
workplace.  You can give out all the cash awards you want but if staff are afraid, 
they probably won't perform as well as they can.  Conversely, you can inspire 
staff to work hard even if you can't reward them financially.  We worked very 
hard at NARA and did good work, even after the RIF that took place in 
1981-1982.  A key component was trust and respect.  

One of the best books that I have read on how to obtain these nonfinancial 
benefits is DRIVING FEAR OUT OF THE WORKPLACE : CREATING THE HIGH-TRUST, 
HIGH-PERFORMANCE ORGANIZATION by Daniel K. Oestreich and Kathleen D. Ryan.  This book 
has been used both by civilian and military thinkers. (For example, you can 
see it listed in the bibliography of a paper posted on the website of the U.S. 
Army's Combined Arms Center.  In writing about "How Much Obedience Does an 
Officer Need?" Ulrich F. Zwygart draws on the Oestreich/Ryan book to note that 
"Recent publications for businessmen stress the value of criticism, because 
quality work is impossible where people are afraid to tell the truth." (Although 
unrelated to your question, the Zwygart paper actually is interesting, if you 
have time, check out
http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/Zwygart/zwygart.asp )

But I digress (as usual, LOL).  According to Oestreich and Ryan, a high 
performance, high trust group shows the following:

1.  Mutual helpfulness and understanding, 
2.  Serving as a reality check for one another, 
3.  Providing feedback for one another, on strengths as well as areas that 
need improvement, 
4.  Influencing each other's ideas and decisions; 
5.  Willingness to be influenced, 
6.  Humor; 
7.  Enjoyment of each other's company, 
8.  Creative, synergistic problem solving where the results are greater than 
the sum of the parts, 
9.  Respect for different backgrounds and talents; 
10.  Reliance on one another's expertise to ensure the best results, 
11.  Willingness and ability to work through conflicts and disagreements, 
12.  Common commitment to the same goal; 
13.  Commitment to one another's success, 
14.  A high level of rapport and honesty with one another, 
15.  Straightforward communication.

Oestreich and Ryan say that correctly handling the concept of 
"undiscussables" is an important part of managing fear in the workplace.  Can people speak up 
about everything that the boss needs to know?  Or not?  Do the boss or others 
in the group exhibit behavior that shuts the door to discussing certain 
topics, making them "undiscussable?"  (Do the bosses shoot the messenger -- or 
reward him or her?)  Or is it possible to talk about concerns, no matter how 
tricky the issue?  According to Oestreich/Ryan, if you anwer yes to these question, 
you have characteristics of a fear based organization:

1.  Do a high proportion of people in your organization frequently hesitate 
to speak up about certain issues?
2. Does a fear of speaking up exist at many levels in your organization?
3. Do people in the workplace associate bosses with fear?
4. Do leaders in the organization exhibit behavior that causes employees to 
be afraid?
5. Are people reacting with strong emotions to a perceived environment of 
fear?
6. Is fear having an impact on work and how it is getting done?

On a related topic, you also might consider taking a look at "Why do People 
and Organizations Produce the Opposite of What they Intend," at
www.rotman.utoronto.ca/rogermartin/Walkerton.pdf

Finally, many of us (archivists, records managers, historians) work in one 
person functions.  Roger Trask, former dean of a history department and a 
retired Federal historian, has noted perceptively, "one of the problems peculiar to 
one-person [history] offices is professional and intellectual loneliness. 
There is no one readily available internally to discuss program directions and 
initiatives, research problems and analytical questions." Having worked in three 
federal agencies, Trask believes the federal historian often faces problems 
because he "is a unique and little-understood personality in an agency engrossed 
in current affairs." (Roger R. Trask, "Small Federal History Offices in the 
Nation's Capital," The Public Historian (Winter 1991)

If you are a manager of a mixed group of employees, encourage your 
subordinates to find ways to decrease intellectual loneliness.  Make sure they have 
outlets for discussing professional issues, either with your or with others.  Some 
of this is obvious -- give them opportunities for speaking up and 
contributing, etc.  And, as in any mixed group, look out for and counter actions by 
bullies who don't want to hear the views of people outside the dominant group.  

A sense of community, either physically or virtually, goes a long to improve 
morale.  Managers sometimes overlook this, especially when most of the 
employees belong to a dominant group (say, mostly scientists, or artists) with only a 
few employees working in functions (history, archives, records management) 
that require different skills and aptitudes than those found within the dominant 
group.  It is easy to reward psycically the ones in the dominant group; it 
takes a lot of skill by a manager to reward the people in one-person functions.  
But the payoff is great if you can do it!

Good luck and thanks for your patience in making your way through my rambles 
this Saturday afternoon!

Maarja







 


In a message dated 7/7/2006 3:23:33 PM Eastern Standard Time, 
[log in to unmask] writes:
Dear Colleagues, 

As part of a training exercise, myself and several other colleagues are
putting together a presentation on non-monetary means of improving staff
morale at our library. Due to union issues, neither monetary methods nor
extra time off are options, which fact is causing us to more creatively
shape our research and brainstorming. We’re focusing on a variety of
different fronts, including rewards, recognition, professional development,
social events, and special “perk” programs. 

We’re curious as to what other institutions are doing in these arenas, and
whether they feel their institution’s efforts are successful. If folks on
the list wouldn’t mind taking a few minutes to share—even just a few items
or programs—it would be immensely helpful. As this topic could be construed
as a somewhat political one, feel free to contact me either on or off-list,
or to leave out the name/identifying features of your institution.

Thanks!

Laura Ruttum
Manuscripts Specialist,
Manuscripts and Archives Division
New York Public Library 
[log in to unmask]

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